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Stomach polyps

Definition


Disease: Stomach polyps Stomach polyps
Category: Digestive diseases
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Disease Definition:

Stomach polyps, which are rare, are usually found when a person is being examined for other reasons. About 1% of people who are undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, a procedure in which the lining of the stomach is examined, are diagnosed with stomach polyps.

Stomach polyps have three types that are common, they are:

Hyperplastic polyps:
More than half of all diagnosed stomach polyps are hyperplastic polyps, about 2% of which develop into cancer.

Fundic gland polyps:
Except in people with FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis) syndrome, these stomach polyps don't become cancerous. This type develops in the top portion of the stomach, which is called the fundus.

Adenomas:
This type accounts for about 10% of all stomach polyps. It arises from the stomach's glandular tissue and has a significant chance of becoming cancerous.

Work Group:


Prepared by: Scientific Section

Symptoms, Causes

Symptoms:

In most cases, small polyps don't cause any symptoms. However, ulcers may develop on its surface when a stomach polyp enlarges, or in some rare cases, the opening between the stomach and the small intestine may be blocked.

Listed below are some of the signs and symptoms of stomach polyps:

-    Bleeding
-    Feeling full after eating just a little amount of food
-    Nausea and vomiting
-    Abdominal pain or tenderness when pressing the abdomen

Additionally, some of the signs and symptoms of gastritis, which is inflammation of the stomach, that could lead to hyperplastic polyps and adenomas are:

-    Bleeding signaled by black stool or blood in the vomit
-    Bloating
-    Abdominal pain
-    Belching
-    Nausea

At a young age, hundreds of colorectal polyps may develop in people with FAP syndrome, which is associated with fundic gland polyps.

A person should see a doctor in case he/she has any of the signs and symptoms of the problems that may indicate polyps or any of the conditions that may lead to them, such as persistent pain or discomfort, or bleeding.

Causes:

Exactly why fundic gland stomach polyps develop is still not clear, however, there are several problems which can cause the gastritis that could lead to adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.

H. PYLORI
Infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which also causes ulcers is the most common cause of chronic gastritis. H. pylori can infect and inflame the stomach lining, despite the fact that it doesn't always cause problems. The damage that results from this could contribute to polyps. One study has found the presence of H. pylori in about 40% of people diagnosed with hyperplastic gastric polyps.

AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE
Someone’s body may produce an autoimmune reaction in which antibodies are formed to attack the cells in the stomach and a protein that is needed to absorb vitamin B-12. This autoimmune response can also cause chronic gastritis. Many people with stomach polyps may have vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia due to this process. When someone doesn’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to tissues, it means that they have anemia.

 

Some of the factors that may increase the risk of developing stomach polyps are:

Age:
Usually, people are in their 60s and older when they develop adenomas and hyperplastic polyps.

Medications:
Fundic gland polyps have been associated with the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as omeprazole, which are used in treating H. pylori infection, GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and ulcers. However, experts still don't know whether the growth of polyp is caused by the presence of H. pylori, or the use of these medications.

Complications

Complications:

Not available

Treatments:

SURGICAL REMOVAL
In most cases, a biopsy will be taken in case a stomach polyp is visible during endoscopy. This polyp will be removed in case there's a chance that it may develop into cancer. The polyp may be removed either through an incision that is made through the abdomen, or it may be done by the gastroenterologist during another upper endoscopy.


MEDICATIONS
In case H. pylori bacteria in the stomach have caused gastritis, to decrease the possibility of the return of the polyps, the bacteria may be eradicated with antibiotics. A blood test can determine if someone has H. pylori or not. Additionally, there's another test that requires drinking a special liquid, after which the patient’s breath will be analyzed with a machine to look for signs that the bacteria are present in their stomach.

In case the bacteria are present in the stomach, the patient may be prescribed several types of antibiotics to kill the H. pylori bacteria. The patient should probably have to take these antibiotics for several weeks.

Prognosis:

Not available

Expert's opinion

Expert's Name:
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Expert's opinion:

For Specialists

Clinical Trials:

Not available

 

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