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Luai Al Bakour
El Temamy Pharmacy
Akoni Hijyen Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Dış Ticaret LTD. ŞTİ
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics
Arabian Trade Center - ATC
Medical Facility (32206):
Legality International. (Pvt.) Ltd.
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Cefalexin is a semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration. Cefalexin is indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible micro-organisms: Respiratory tract infections Otitis media Skin and soft tissue infections Bone and joint infections Genito-urinary tract infections, including acute prostatitis Dental infections
Cefalexin is contra-indicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
Gastro-intestinal: Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis may appear either during or after antibiotic treatment. Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely. The most frequent side-effect has been diarrhoea. It was very rarely severe enough to warrant cessation of therapy. Dyspepsia and abdominal pain have also occurred. As with some penicillins and some other cephalosporins, transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported rarely. Hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions have been observed in the form of rash, urticaria, angioedema, and, rarely, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. These reactions usually subsided upon discontinuation of the drug, although in some cases supportive therapy may be necessary. Anaphylaxis has also been reported. Haemic and lymphatic system: Eosinophilia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and haemolytic anaemia have been reported. Other: These have included genital and anal pruritus, genital candidiasis, vaginitis and vaginal discharge, dizziness, fatigue, headache, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, arthralgia, arthritis, and joint disorder. Reversible interstitial nephritis has been reported rarely. Slight elevations in AST and ALT have been reported.
As with other beta-lactam drugs, renal excretion of cefalexin is inhibited by probenecid. In a single study of 12 healthy subjects given single 500mg doses of cefalexin and metformin, plasma metformin Cmax and AUC increased by an average of 34% and 24%, respectively, and metformin renal clearance decreased by an average of 14%. No side-effects were reported in the 12 healthy subjects in this study. No information is available about the interaction of cefalexin and metformin following multiple dose administration. The clinical significance of this study is unclear, particularly as no cases of “lactic acidosis” have been reported in association with concomitant metformin and cefalexin treatment.
Before instituting therapy with cefalexin, every effort should be made to determine whether the patient has had previous hypersensitivity reactions to the cephalosporins, penicillins, or other drugs. Cefalexin should be given cautiously to penicillin-sensitive patients. There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity of the penicillins and cephalosporins. Patients have had severe reactions (including anaphylaxis) to both drugs. Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with virtually all broad-spectrum antibiotics, including macrolides, semi-synthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins. It is important, therefore, to consider its diagnosis in patients who develop diarrhoea in association with the use of antibiotics. Such colitis may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuance alone. In moderate to severe cases, appropriate measures should be taken. If an allergic reaction to cefalexin occurs, the drug should be discontinued and the patient treated with the appropriate agents. Prolonged use of cefalexin may result in the overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. Cefalexin should be administered with caution in the presence of markedly impaired renal function. Careful clinical and laboratory studies should be made because safe dosage may be lower than that usually recommended. Positive direct Coombs’ tests have been reported during treatment with the cephalosporin antibiotics. In haematological studies, or in transfusion cross-matching procedures when antiglobulin tests are performed on the minor side, or in Coombs’ testing of newborns whose mothers have received cephalosporin antibiotics before parturition, it should be recognised that a positive Coombs’ test may be due to the drug. A false positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with Benedict’s or Fehling’s solutions, or with copper sulphate test tablets.
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Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed
Dr. Hani Najjar
Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy
Dr. Talal Sabouni
Dr . Dirar Abboud
Dr. Tahsin Martini
Dr. Faisal Dibsi
Samir Moussa M.D.