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Ditrim

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Indications:

For the treatment of urinary tract infections due to susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris. It is recommended that initial episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections be treated with a single effective antibacterial agent rather than the combination. Acute Otitis Media For the treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim offers some advantage over the use of other antimicrobial agents. To date, there are limited data on the safety of repeated use of Bactrim in pediatric patients under two years of age. Bactrim is not indicated for prophylactic or prolonged administration in otitis media at any age. Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Adults For the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae when in the judgment of the physician Bactrim offers some advantage over the use of a single antimicrobial agent. Shigellosis For the treatment of enteritis caused by susceptible strains of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei when antibacterial therapy is indicated. Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia For the treatment of documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in individuals who are immunosuppressed and considered to be at an increased risk of developing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Traveler’s Diarrhea in Adults For the treatment of traveler’s diarrhea due to susceptible strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Contraindications:

Bactrim is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides and in patients with documented megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency. Bactrim is also contraindicated in pregnant patients and nursing mothers, because sulfonamides pass the placenta and are excreted in the milk and may cause kernicterus. Bactrim is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age. Bactrim is also contraindicated in patients with marked hepatic damage or with severe renal insufficiency when renal function status cannot be monitored.

Adverse reactions:

The most common adverse effects are gastrointestinal disturbances (nausea, vomiting, anorexia) and allergic skin reactions (such as rash and urticaria). FATALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF SULFONAMIDES, ALTHOUGH RARE, HAVE OCCURRED DUE TO SEVERE REACTIONS, INCLUDING STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME, TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS, FULMINANT HEPATIC NECROSIS, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, APLASTIC ANEMIA AND OTHER BLOOD DYSCRASIAS. Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, hemolytic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, methemoglobinemia, eosinophilia. Allergic Reactions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anaphylaxis, allergic myocarditis, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, angioedema, drug fever, chills, Henoch-Schoenlein purpura, serum sickness-like syndrome, generalized allergic reactions, generalized skin eruptions, photosensitivity, conjunctival and scleral injection, pruritus, urticaria and rash. In addition, periarteritis nodosa and systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported. Gastrointestinal: Hepatitis (including cholestatic jaundice and hepatic necrosis), elevation of serum transaminase and bilirubin, pseudomembranous enterocolitis, pancreatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia. Genitourinary: Renal failure, interstitial nephritis, BUN and serum creatinine elevation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria, crystalluria and nephrotoxicity in association with cyclosporine. Metabolic and Nutritional: Hyperkalemia. Neurologic: Aseptic meningitis, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, headache. Psychiatric: Hallucinations, depression, apathy, nervousness. Endocrine: The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides) and oral hypoglycemic agents. Cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents. Diuresis and hypoglycemia have occurred rarely in patients receiving sulfonamides. Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia and myalgia. Isolated cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with Bactrim, mainly in AIDS patients. Respiratory: Cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates. Miscellaneous: Weakness, fatigue, insomnia. .

Interactions:

seizure medication such as phenytoin (Dilantin); a diuretic (water pill); a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin); methotrexate (Trexall, Rheumatrex); or an ACE inhibitor such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), or trandolapril (Mavik).

Warnings:

Tell your doctor your medical history especially if you have: kidney disease, vitamin (folic acid) deficiency, diabetes, blood disorders (e.g., bone marrow suppression, G6PD deficiency, anemia), allergies (especially drug allergies). Caution is advised when using this drug in the elderly because they may be more sensitive to the side effects of the drug (e.g., allergic skin reactions). Trimethoprim should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. This drug is excreted into breast milk and may have an effect on the nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

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Consultants Corner

Dr. Talal Sabouni

Dr. Talal Sabouni UROLOGY AND KIDNEY TRANSPLANT

Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy

Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy Pediatrician

Dr. Tahsin Martini

Dr. Tahsin Martini Degree status: M.D. in Ophthalmology

Samir Moussa M.D.

Samir Moussa M.D. ENT Specialist

Dr. Faisal Dibsi

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Dr. Hani Najjar

Dr. Hani Najjar Pediatrics, Neurology

Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed

Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed Consultant Ophthalmologist

Dr . Dirar Abboud

Dr . Dirar Abboud Hepatologist – Gastroenterologist

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