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Luai Al Bakour
El Temamy Pharmacy
Akoni Hijyen Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Dış Ticaret LTD. ŞTİ
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics
Arabian Trade Center - ATC
Medical Facility (32206):
Legality International. (Pvt.) Ltd.
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indicated in the treatment of hypertension. it may be employed alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents.
should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine
Most adverse effects are mild and tend to diminish with continued therapy. The most frequent (which appear to be dose-related) are dry mouth, occurring in about 40 of 100 patients; drowsiness, about 33 in 100; dizziness, about 16 in 100; constipation and sedation, each about 10 in 100. The following less frequent adverse experiences have also been reported in patients receiving tablets, but in many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established. Body as a Whole: Fatigue, fever, headache, pallor, weakness, and withdrawal syndrome. Also reported were a weakly positive Coombs’ test and increased sensitivity to alcohol. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, congestive heart failure, electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e., sinus node arrest, junctional bradycardia, high degree AV block and arrhythmias), orthostatic symptoms, palpitations, Raynaud’s phenomenon, syncope, and tachycardia. Cases of sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block have been reported, both with and without the use of concomitant digitalis. Central Nervous System: Agitation, anxiety, delirium, delusional perception, hallucinations (including visual and auditory), insomnia, mental depression, nervousness, other behavioral changes, paresthesia, restlessness, sleep disorder, and vivid dreams or nightmares. Dermatological: Alopecia, angioneurotic edema, hives, pruritus, rash, and urticaria. Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, hepatitis, malaise, mild transient abnormalities in liver function tests, nausea, parotitis, pseudo-obstruction (including colonic pseudo-obstruction), salivary gland pain, and vomiting. Genitourinary: Decreased sexual activity, difficulty in micturition, erectile dysfunction, loss of libido, nocturia, and urinary retention. Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia. Metabolic: Gynecomastia, transient elevation of blood glucose or serum creatine phosphokinase, and weight gain. Musculoskeletal: Leg cramps and muscle or joint pain. Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa. Ophthalmological: Accommodation disorder, blurred vision, burning of the eyes, decreased lacrimation, and dryness of eyes.
Clonidine may potentiate the CNS-depressive effects of alcohol, barbiturates or other sedating drugs. If a patient receiving clonidine hydrochloride is also taking tricyclic antidepressants, the hypotensive effect of clonidine may be reduced, necessitating an increase in the clonidine dose. Due to a potential for additive effects such as bradycardia and AV block, caution is warranted in patients receiving clonidine concomitantly with agents known to affect sinus node function or AV nodal conduction, e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. Amitriptyline in combination with clonidine enhances the manifestation of corneal lesions in rats (see Toxicology). Serious adverse events, including death, have been reported in concomitant use with methylphenidate in patients with underlying cardiovascular conditions, although no association for the combination has been established. The safety of using clonidine in combination with methylphenidate has not been systematically evaluated. Toxicology In several studies with oral clonidine hydrochloride, a dose-dependent increase in the incidence and severity of spontaneous retinal degeneration was seen in albino rats treated for six months or longer. Tissue distribution studies in dogs and monkeys showed a concentration of clonidine in the choroid. In view of the retinal degeneration seen in rats, eye examinations were performed during clinical trials in 908 patients before, and periodically after, the start of clonidine therapy. In 353 of these 908 patients, the eye examinations were carried out over periods of 24 months or longer. Except for some dryness of the eyes, no drug-related abnormal ophthalmological findings were recorded and, according to specialized tests such as electroretinography and macular dazzle, retinal function was unchanged. In combination with amitriptyline, clonidine hydrochloride administration led to the development of corneal lesions in rats within 5 days.
General In patients who have developed localized contact sensitization to (clonidine), continuation of this medicine or substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride therapy may be associated with the development of a generalized skin rash. In patients who develop an allergic reaction to this medicine, substitution of oral clonidine hydrochloride may also elicit an allergic reaction (including generalized rash, urticaria, or angioedema). this medicine tablets should be used with caution in patients with severe coronary insufficiency, conduction disturbances, recent myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease or chronic renal failure. Perioperative Use Administration of this medicine tablets should be continued to within four hours of surgery and resumed as soon as possible thereafter. Blood pressure should be carefully monitored during surgery and additional measures to control blood pressure should be available if required. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Chronic dietary administration of clonidine was not carcinogenic to rats (132 weeks) or mice (78 weeks) dosed, respectively, at up to 46 or 70 times the maximum recommended daily human dose as mg/kg (9 or 6 times the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis). There was no evidence of genotoxicity in the Ames test for mutagenicity or mouse micronucleus test for clastogenicity. Fertility of male or female rats was unaffected by clonidine doses as high as 150 mcg/kg (approximately 3 times MRDHD). In a separate experiment, fertility of female rats appeared to be affected at dose levels of 500 to 2000 mcg/kg (10 to 40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 2 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis.) Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C. Reproduction studies performed in rabbits at doses up to approximately 3 times the oral maximum recommended daily human dose (MRDHD) of this medicine® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets produced no evidence of a teratogenic or embryotoxic potential in rabbits. In rats, however, doses as low as 1/3 the oral MRDHD (1/15 the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis) of clonidine were associated with increased resorptions in a study in which dams were treated continuously from 2 months prior to mating. Increased resorptions were not associated with treatment at the same time or at higher dose levels (up to 3 times the oral MRDHD) when the dams were treated on gestation days 6-15. Increases in resorption were observed at much higher dose levels (40 times the oral MRDHD on a mg/kg basis; 4 to 8 times the MRDHD on a mg/m2 basis) in mice and rats treated on gestation days 1-14 (lowest dose employed in the study was 500 mcg/kg). No adequate, well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nursing Mothers As clonidine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when this medicine® (clonidine hydrochloride, USP) tablets are administered to a nursing woman. Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials
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Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed
Dr . Dirar Abboud
Samir Moussa M.D.
Dr. Tahsin Martini
Dr. Hani Najjar
Dr. Talal Sabouni
Dr. Faisal Dibsi
Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy