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Luai Al Bakour
El Temamy Pharmacy
Akoni Hijyen Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Dış Ticaret LTD. ŞTİ
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics
Arabian Trade Center - ATC
Medical Facility (32206):
Legality International. (Pvt.) Ltd.
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Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe infections caused by piperacillin-resistant, piperacillin/tazobactam-susceptible, β-lactamase producing strains of the designated microorganisms in the specified conditions listed below: Appendicitis (complicated by rupture or abscess) and peritonitis caused by piperacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli or the following members of the Bacteroides fragilis group: B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, or B. vulgatus. The individual members of this group were studied in less than 10 cases. Uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections, including cellulitis, cutaneous abscesses and ischemic/diabetic foot infections caused by piperacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Postpartum endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease caused by piperacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing strains of Escherichia coli. Community-acquired pneumonia (moderate severity only) caused by piperacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae. Nosocomial pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by piperacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and by piperacillin/tazobactam-susceptible Acinetobacter baumanii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Nosocomial pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa should be treated in combination with an aminoglycoside). Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated only for the specified conditions listed above. Infections caused by piperacillin-susceptible organisms, for which piperacillin has been shown to be effective, are also amenable to Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection treatment due to its piperacillin content. The tazobactam component of this combination product does not decrease the activity of the piperacillin component against piperacillin-susceptible organisms. Therefore, the treatment of mixed infections caused by piperacillin-susceptible organisms and piperacillin-resistant, β-lactamase producing organisms susceptible to Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection should not require the addition of another antibiotic. Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is useful as presumptive therapy in the indicated conditions prior to the identification of causative organisms because of its broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Appropriate cultures should usually be performed before initiating antimicrobial treatment in order to isolate and identify the organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection. Antimicrobial therapy should be adjusted, if appropriate, once the results of culture(s) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are known. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection and other antibacterial drugs, Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or β-lactamase inhibitors.
During the initial clinical investigations, 2621 patients worldwide were treated with Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection in phase 3 trials. In the key North American clinical trials (n=830 patients), 90% of the adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity and transient in nature. However, in 3.2% of the patients treated worldwide, Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection was discontinued because of adverse events primarily involving the skin (1.3%), including rash and pruritus; the gastrointestinal system (0.9%), including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting; and allergic reactions (0.5%). Adverse local reactions that were reported, irrespective of relationship to therapy with Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, were phlebitis (1.3%), injection site reaction (0.5%), pain (0.2%), inflammation (0.2%), thrombophlebitis (0.2%), and edema (0.1%). Based on patients from the North American trials (n=1063), the events with the highest incidence in patients, irrespective of relationship to Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection therapy, were diarrhea (11.3%); headache (7.7%); constipation (7.7%); nausea (6.9%); insomnia (6.6%); rash (4.2%), including maculopapular, bullous, urticarial, and eczematoid; vomiting (3.3%); dyspepsia (3.3%); pruritus (3.1%); stool changes (2.4%); fever (2.4%); agitation (2.1%); pain (1.7%); moniliasis (1.6%); hypertension (1.6%); dizziness (1.4%); abdominal pain (1.3%); chest pain (1.3%); edema (1.2%); anxiety (1.2%); rhinitis (1.2%); and dyspnea (1.1%). Additional adverse systemic clinical events reported in 1% or less of the patients in the initial North American trials are listed below within each body system. Autonomic nervous system —hypotension, ileus, syncope Body as a whole —rigors, back pain, malaise Cardiovascular —tachycardia, including supraventricular and ventricular; bradycardia; arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, circulatory failure, myocardial infarction Central nervous system —tremor, convulsions, vertigo Gastrointestinal —melena, flatulence, hemorrhage, gastritis, hiccough, ulcerative stomatitis Pseudomembranous colitis was reported in one patient during the clinical trials. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment. Hearing and Vestibular System —tinnitus Hypersensitivity —anaphylaxis Metabolic and Nutritional —symptomatic hypoglycemia, thirst Musculoskeletal —myalgia, arthralgia Platelets, Bleeding, Clotting —mesenteric embolism, purpura, epistaxis, pulmonary embolism. Psychiatric —confusion, hallucination, depression Reproductive, Female —leukorrhea, vaginitis Respiratory —pharyngitis, pulmonary edema, bronchospasm, coughing Skin and Appendages —genital pruritus, diaphoresis Special senses —taste perversion Urinary —retention, dysuria, oliguria, hematuria, incontinence Vision —photophobia Vascular (extracardiac) —flushing
Aminoglycosides The mixing of beta-lactam antibiotics with aminoglycosides in vitro can result in substantial inactivation of the aminoglycoside. However, amikacin and gentamicin have been shown to be compatible in vitro with Piperacillin and Tazobactam in certain diluents at specific concentrations for a simultaneous Y-site infusion. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) The inactivation of aminoglycosides in the presence of penicillin-class drugs has been recognized. It has been postulated that penicillin-aminoglycoside complexes form; these complexes are microbiologically inactive and of unknown toxicity. Sequential administration of Piperacillin and Tazobactam with tobramycin to patients with normal renal function and mild to moderate renal impairment has been shown to modestly decrease serum concentrations of tobramycin but does not significantly affect tobramycin pharmacokinetics. When aminoglycosides are administered in combination with piperacillin to patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis, the concentrations of the aminoglycosides (especially tobramycin) may be significantly altered and should be monitored. Since aminoglycosides are not equally susceptible to inactivation by piperacillin, consideration should be given to the choice of the aminoglycoside when administered in combination with piperacillin to these patients. Probenecid Probenecid administered concomitantly with Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection prolongs the half-life of piperacillin by 21% and that of tazobactam by 71%. Vancomycin No pharmacokinetic interactions have been noted between Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection and vancomycin. Heparin Coagulation parameters should be tested more frequently and monitored regularly during simultaneous administration of high doses of heparin, oral anticoagulants, or other drugs that may affect the blood coagulation system or the thrombocyte function. Vecuronium Piperacillin when used concomitantly with vecuronium has been implicated in the prolongation of the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium. Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection could produce the same phenomenon if given along with vecuronium. Due to their similar mechanism of action, it is expected that the neuromuscular blockade produced by any of the non-depolarizing muscle relaxants could be prolonged in the presence of piperacillin. (See package insert for vecuronium bromide.) Methotrexate Limited data suggests that co-administration of methotrexate and piperacillin may reduce the clearance of methotrexate due to competition for renal secretion. The impact of tazobactam on the elimination of methotrexate has not been evaluated. If concurrent therapy is necessary, serum concentrations of methotrexate as well as the signs and symptoms of methotrexate toxicity should be frequently monitored.
General Bleeding manifestations have occurred in some patients receiving β-lactam antibiotics, including piperacillin. These reactions have sometimes been associated with abnormalities of coagulation tests such as clotting time, platelet aggregation and prothrombin time, and are more likely to occur in patients with renal failure. If bleeding manifestations occur, Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. The possibility of the emergence of resistant organisms that might cause superinfections should be kept in mind. If this occurs, appropriate measures should be taken. As with other penicillins, patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or convulsions if higher than recommended doses are given intravenously (particularly in the presence of renal failure). Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection contains a total of 2.36 mEq (54.28 mg) of Na+ per gram of piperacillin in the combination product. This should be considered when treating patients requiring restricted salt intake. Periodic electrolyte determinations should be performed in patients with low potassium reserves, and the possibility of hypokalemia should be kept in mind with patients who have potentially low potassium reserves and who are receiving cytotoxic therapy or diuretics. As with other semisynthetic penicillins, piperacillin therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of fever and rash in cystic fibrosis patients. In patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose should be adjusted to the degree of renal function impairment. Prescribing Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of development of drug-resistant bacteria.
SOLUTION FOR INJECTION
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Dr. Hani Najjar
Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy
Dr. Faisal Dibsi
Dr . Dirar Abboud
Samir Moussa M.D.
Dr. Tahsin Martini
Dr. Talal Sabouni
Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed