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Luai Al Bakour
El Temamy Pharmacy
Akoni Hijyen Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Dış Ticaret LTD. ŞTİ
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics
Arabian Trade Center - ATC
Medical Facility (32206):
Legality International. (Pvt.) Ltd.
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This medicine is indicated for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis or hepatitis. This medicine provides nutritional support for patients with these diseases of the liver who require parenteral nutrition and are intolerant of general purpose amino acid injections, which are contraindicated in patients with hepatic coma.
This medicine is contraindicated in patients with anuria, inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, especially those involving branched chain amino acid metabolism such as Maple Syrup Urine Disease and Isovaleric Acidemia, or hypersensitivity to one or more amino acids present in the solution.
water weight gain, edema, increase in BUN, and dilutional hyponatremia. Asterixis was reported to have worsened in one patient during infusion of this medicine. Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia. Symptoms may result from an excess or deficit of one or more of the ions present in the solution; therefore, frequent monitoring of electrolyte levels is essential. Phosphorus deficiency may lead to impaired tissue oxygenation and acute hemolytic anemia. Relative to calcium, excessive phosphorus intake can precipitate hypocalcemia with cramps, tetany and muscular hyperexcitability. If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.
Some additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist. When introducing additives, use aseptic techniques. Mix thoroughly.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require the use of additional electrolyte supplements. Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should be administered through an indwelling intravenous catheter with the tip located in the superior vena cava. Special care must be taken when giving hypertonic dextrose to a diabetic or prediabetic patient. To prevent severe hyperglycemia in such patients, insulin may be required. Peripheral intravenous administration of this medicine requires appropriate dilution and provision of adequate calories. Care should be taken to assure proper placement of the needle within the lumen of the vein. The venipuncture site should be inspected frequently for signs of infiltration. If venous thrombosis or phlebitis occurs, discontinue infusions or change infusion site and initiate appropriate treatment. Care should be taken to avoid circulatory overload, particularly in patients with cardiac insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarct, infusion of amino acids should always be accompanied by dextrose since in anoxia, free fatty acids cannot be utilized by the myocardium and energy must be produced anaerobically from glycogen or glucose. Infusion of this medicine may not affect the clinical course of patients with fulminant hepatitis who have a poor prognosis and are generally unresponsive to treatment. It has been shown that the abnormal plasma amino acid pattern in fulminant hepatitis differs from that in chronic liver disease. Extraordinary electrolyte losses such as may occur during protracted nasogastric suction, vomiting, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal fistula drainage may necessitate additional electrolyte supplementation. Administration of glucose at a rate exceeding the patient’s utilization rate may lead to hyperglycemia, coma, and death. Metabolic acidosis can be prevented or readily controlled by adding a portion of the cations in the electrolyte mixture as acetate salts and in the case of hyperchloremic acidosis, by keeping the total chloride content of the infusate to a minimum. To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration.
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Dr. Tahsin Martini
Samir Moussa M.D.
Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy
Dr. Hani Najjar
Dr. Talal Sabouni
Dr. Faisal Dibsi
Dr . Dirar Abboud
Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed