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Luai Al Bakour
El Temamy Pharmacy
Akoni Hijyen Teknolojileri Sanayi ve Dış Ticaret LTD. ŞTİ
Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics
Arabian Trade Center - ATC
Medical Facility (32206):
Legality International. (Pvt.) Ltd.
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(loperamide hydrochloride) is indicated for the control and symptomatic relief of acute nonspecific diarrhea and of chronic diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease. (loperamide hydrochloride) is also indicated for reducing the volume of discharge from ileostomies.
Pseudomembranous colitis caused by antibiotic use; acute diarrhea associated with organisms that penetrate intestinal wall (eg, toxigenic Escherichia coli , Salmonella , Shigella ); conditions in which constipation should be avoided; bloody diarrhea; fever; acute ulcerative colitis (potential for toxic megacolon).
CNS Fatigue; drowsiness; dizziness. Dermatologic Rash. GI Abdominal pain; distention or discomfort; constipation; nausea; vomiting; dry mouth.
Nonclinical data have shown that loperamide is a P-glycoprotein substrate. Concomitant administration of loperamide (16 mg single dose) with a 600 mg single dose of either quinidine, or ritonavir, both of which are P-glycoprotein inhibitors, resulted in a 2- to 3- fold increase in loperamide plasma levels. Due to the potential for enhanced central effects when loperamide is coadministered with quinidine and with ritonavir, caution should be exercised when loperamide is administered at the recommended dosages (2 mg, up to 16 mg maximum daily dose) with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. When a single 16-mg dose of loperamide is coadministered with a 600 mg single dose of saquinavir, loperamide decreased saquinavir exposure by 54%, which may be of clinical relevance due to reduction of therapeutic efficacy of saquinavir. The effect of saquinavir on loperamide is of less clinical significance. Therefore, when loperamide is given with saquinavir, the therapeutic efficacy of saquinavir should be closely monitored.
General Extremely rare allergic reactions including anaphylaxis and anaphylactic shock have been reported. In acute diarrhea, if clinical improvement is not observed in 48 hours, the administration of (loperamide hydrochloride) should be discontinued and patients should be advised to consult their physician. Although no pharmacokinetic data are available in patients with hepatic impairment, (loperamide hydrochloride) should be used with caution in such patients because of reduced first pass metabolism. Patients with hepatic dysfunction should be monitored closely for signs of CNS toxicity. No pharmacokinetic data are available in patients with renal impairment. Since it has been reported that the majority of the drug is metabolized and metabolites or the unchanged drug is excreted mainly in the feces, dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment are not required. No formal studies have been conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of loperamide in elderly subjects. However, in two studies that enrolled elderly patients, there were no major differences in the drug disposition in elderly patients with diarrhea relative to young patients. Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility In an 18-month rat study with oral doses up to 40 mg/kg/day (21 times the maximum human dose of 16 mg/day, based on a body surface area comparison), there was no evidence of carcinogenesis. Loperamide was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the SOS chromotest in E. coli, the dominant lethal test in female mice, or the mouse embryo cell transformation assay. Fertility and reproductive performance was evaluated in rats using oral doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg/kg/day in one study, and 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day (females only) in a second study. Oral administration of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 11 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) and higher produced strong impairment of female fertility. Treatment of female rats with up to 10 mg/kg/day p.o. (approximately 5 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) had no effect on fertility. Treatment of male rats with 40 mg/kg/day p.o. (approximately 21 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) produced impairment of male fertility, whereas administration of up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) had no effect. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Teratology studies have been performed in rats using oral doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg/kg/day, and in rabbits using oral doses of 5, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day. These studies have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus at doses up to 10 mg/kg/day in rats (5 times the human dose based on body surface area comparison) and 40 mg/kg/day in rabbits (43 times the human dose based on body surface area comparison). Treatment of rats with 40 mg/kg/day p.o. (21 times the human dose based on a body surface area comparison) produced marked impairment of fertility. The studies produced no evidence of teratogenic activity. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Loperamide should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Non-teratogenic Effects In a peri- and post-natal reproduction study in rats, oral administration of 40 mg/kg/day produced impairment of growth and survival of offspring. Nursing Mothers Small amounts of loperamide may appear in human breast milk. Therefore, (loperamide hydrochloride) is not recommended during breast-feeding. Pediatric Use See the "WARNINGS" Section for information on the greater variability of response in this age group.
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Yaser Habrawi , F.R.C.S.Ed
Dr. Hani Najjar
Dr. Faisal Dibsi
Samir Moussa M.D.
Dr. Tahsin Martini
Dr. Talal Sabouni
Dr. Samer Al-Jneidy
Dr . Dirar Abboud